Understanding the Risks and Causes of Miscarriage

Miscarriage is a tragic loss for expecting parents. Having a miscarriage is usually unavoidable and happens for reasons you have no control over. A healthy pregnancy is possible for the vast majority of women who have experienced a loss.

Infertility: What can go wrong?

Although the precise cause of a miscarriage is not always identified, there are several factors that increase or decrease the likelihood of a miscarriage that has been identified by specialists. According to female specialists miscarriage can be caused by a number of different things, such as genetic defects, thyroid problems, diabetes, immune system issues, substance addiction, and more.

1. Miscarriages can be genetic

The cause of up to 70% of first-trimester miscarriages and 20% of second-trimester miscarriages is a genetic defect in the fetus. In most cases, when an egg and sperm combine to produce an embryo, the resulting chromosomes will be a perfect match. However, they can get mixed up, and if that happens, the embryo will cease growing.

Nothing in the parents or their genes is to blame. While most cases of chromosomal abnormalities in embryos are isolated incidents, they are extremely rare to occur again.

2. Uterine abnormality

First-trimester miscarriage is more likely to occur when a fertilized egg encounters an unfavorable uterine environment.

For instance, if the uterus has scar tissue from a previous D&C or endometrial ablation, the developing pregnancy may have trouble implanting.

Having a uterine fibroid can increase the risk of miscarriage in the first trimester, especially if the embryo is placed directly on top of the fibroid and was unable to receive adequate blood flow.

Problems can also arise as a result of congenital disorders, in which the uterus is constructed improperly at birth. Miscarriage happens in as many as 70% of pregnancies in women with a bicornuate uterus, a condition in which the uterus is divided into two halves.

3. Age

One potential risk for a miscarriage is advanced maternal age. Doctors explain that after the age of 40, a woman’s risk of miscarriage rises to 40%. Miscarriage risk also rises with paternal age, though not as dramatically as with maternal age.

Nevertheless, just because these numbers are higher for women over 40 doesn’t mean they can’t have a healthy pregnancy. According to recent statistics, the American birthrate has dropped for nearly all age categories of women under 35 but has climbed for women in their late 30s and early 40s. In other words, there is no reason to lose hope if you are over the age of 30 and attempting to conceive.

4. Health issues

A pregnancy loss often results from a problem with the mother’s health. Some of these include:

  • Cytomegalovirus or rubella infections
  • Diabetic or hypertensive diseases are poorly controlled
  • Autoimmune diseases such as thyroid disease and lupus
  • Cervical insufficiency, fibroids, an abnormally shaped uterus, or an early opening and widening of the cervix, are all problems with the uterus and cervix
  • HIV or syphilis are among the STD infections that can affect women
  • Placenta blood flow is blocked by blood clots

5. Medications

Medicines that increase your risk include:

  • Rheumatoid arthritis is treated with misoprostol
  • Eczema and acne are treated with retinoids
  • A medication used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, methotrexate
  • non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) – such as ibuprofen, which are used for pain and inflammation.

Other medicines are unsafe during pregnancy. It’s always best to ask your doctor, midwife, pharmacist, or dentist about any medications that you are taking.

6. Weight problems

Obesity (defined as a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30 or above) is associated with an even higher risk of miscarriage than being overweight or underweight (defined as a BMI of 20 or higher). For guidance on how to maintain a healthy weight during pregnancy, discuss your concerns with your doctor about diet and activity.

7. Smoking

One’s chances of having a miscarriage or other unfavorable pregnancy outcomes are raised if one smokes. Although the dangers of vaping during pregnancy have not been adequately studied,some of the best doctors advise against it anyhow. Although quitting smoking for the sake of your health and the health of your developing child might be understandably challenging, support is available.

8. Food poisoning

Ingestion of food contaminated with harmful organisms such as bacteria, viruses, or parasites results in food poisoning. Pâté, for instance, has been found to harbor listeria. These are the microorganisms responsible for listeriosis infection. Despite its scarcity, listeriosis is a serious threat to pregnant women and their unborn children, sometimes leading to a miscarriage or other pregnancy complications.

What doesn’t cause miscarriage?

Throughout pregnancy, you may feel apprehensive about engaging in some behaviors or expressing certain feelings. In contrast, the following are generally safe if your pregnancy is not high-risk:

  • Working
  • Comfortable durations of sitting or standing
  • Exercise (consult with your doctor about what degree of activity is best for you) (talk with your doctor about what level of exercise is right for you)
  • Taking part in sexual activity
  • Air travel
  • Eating spicy food
  • being frightened or shocked emotionally
  • The effects of stress and depression


Reducing your risk of miscarriage can be as simple as leading a healthy lifestyle (no smoking, no drinking, and low to no caffeine intake). When pregnant, it’s best to stay away from someone who might be carrying a contagious disease. If you suspect you may be having a miscarriage, consult a gynecologist doctor for guidance on what to expect and how to care for yourself in the aftermath.


1. What happens right away following a miscarriage?

After a miscarriage, it’s usual to have exhaustion, nausea, and trouble sleeping. Feelings of guilt, shock, despair and rage are all possible.

2. Is it possible for stress to bring on an abortion?

Stress can have negative effects on your health, but there is no proof that it causes miscarriages. Miscarriage occurs in 10%-20% of all pregnancies that are diagnosed. Since many miscarriages happen before the pregnancy is ever identified, the true figure is likely greater.

3. How can a miscarriage cause bleeding?

This may range from a few faint spots or a brownish discharge to substantial bleeding and bright red blood or clots. During the course of a few days, you may have intermittent bleeding.

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